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Part 107 Knowledge Test

Appendix 1 - Definitions & Acronyms

Definitions & Acronyms

AGL (Above Ground Level)

Height measured with respect to the underlying ground surface.

ATC (Air Traffic Control)

A service provided by ground-based air traffic controllers who direct aircraft on the ground and through controlled airspace, and can provide advisory services to aircraft in non-controlled airspace.

CS (Control System)

Typically the on-ground elements that control a small unmanned aircraft system including the modem, datalink, joystick, and software.

FAA (Federal Aviation Administration)

A governmental body of the United States with powers to regulate all aspects of civil aviation in that nation as well as over its surrounding international waters.

GPS (Global Positioning System)

A global navigation satellite system that provides geolocation and time information to a GPS receiver anywhere on or near the Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites.

IFR (Instrument Flight Rules)

Rules and regulations established by the Federal Aviation Administration to govern flight under conditions in which flight by outside visual reference is not safe. IFR flight depends upon flying by reference to instruments in the flight deck, and navigation is accomplished by reference to electronic signals.

MSL (Mean Sea Level)

The standard sea level at which atmospheric pressure is measured to calibrate altitude and, consequently, aircraft flight levels.

NAS (National Airspace System)

The airspace, navigation facilities and airports of the United States along with their associated information, services, rules, regulations, policies, procedures, personnel and equipment. It includes components shared jointly with the military.

NM (Nautical Mile)

A nautical mile is a unit of measurement used in both air and marine navigation, and for the definition of territorial waters. Historically, it was defined as one minute (1/60 of a degree) of latitude. Today the international nautical mile is defined as exactly 1852 metres. This converts to about 1.15 imperial/US miles. The derived unit of speed is the knot, one nautical mile per hour.

NOTAM (Notice to Airmen)

A notice filed with an aviation authority to alert aircraft pilots of potential hazards along a flight route or at a location that could affect the safety of the flight.

Remote PIC (Remote Pilot-in-Command)

The remote pilot in command is directly responsible for and is the final authority as to the operation of the small unmanned aircraft system.

SM (Statute Mile)

A unit of linear measure equal to 5,280 feet, or 1,760 yards (approximately 1.609 kilometers).

sUAS (Small Unmanned Aircraft System)

An unmanned aerial vehicle (commonly known as a drone) which includes an unmanned aerial vehicle, a ground-based controller, and a system of communications between the two.

TFR (Temporary Flight Restriction)

Defines an area restricted to air travel due to a hazardous condition, a special event, or a general warning for the entire FAA airspace.

UTC (Universal Coordinated Time)

Coordinated Universal Time is the primary time standard by which the world regulates clocks and time. It is not adjusted for daylight saving time.

VFR (Visual Flight Rules)

A set of regulations under which a pilot operates an aircraft in weather conditions generally clear enough to allow the pilot to see where the aircraft is going.

VLOS (Visual Line-of-Sight)

Keeping the unmanned aircraft in visual line of sight at all times unaided (except for prescription glasses or sunglasses) without the use of binoculars, telescopes or zoom lenses i.e. not flying the into clouds or fog, behind trees, buildings or other (even partial) obstructions.

VO (Visual Observer)

A Visual Observer is an optional crewmember for a flight mission who serves as a second set of eyes, monitoring the drone in flight in order to support the remote pilot-in-command.